# powder factor for aggregate mining

• ## The Powder Factor Dilemma iRing

In surface mining operations, the weight of explosive used per unit volume of rock blasted is measured in pounds per cubic yard) lb/yd 3) (kg/m 3) to produce broken material is defined as powder factorHowever, in underground mining operations the preference is to define powder factor as the weight of explosive required per unit of weight of rock to fragment either a metric tonne or an

• ## Chapter 8 BLAST DESIGN npsgov

POWDER FACTOR 9 Adjust to a rectangular pattern of the same total cubic yards 10 Adjust stemming and subdrilling amounts NOTE: For powder factor other than 1 lb/cy: divide the resultant number of cubic yards obtained in Step #7 by the powder factor desired

• ## Evaluating the effectiveness of powder factor Pit

Changes to Powder FactorChanges to StemmingConclusionThe physical characteristics of a charge in relation to its powder factor can be analyzed when looking at the bench height of a blast The borehole utilization of the blast is the percentage of the hole that is filled with explosives As the bench height increases, the borehole utilization increases until the bench height is about two to three times the burden Powder factor design cannot correctly take into account the borehole utilization or changes to the physical characteristics of the charge In powder factor design, two separat
• ## INFLUENCE OF MECHANICAL AND AGGREGATE

Science in Mining and Mineral Exploration Degree of Master of Science Department of Earth Resources Engineering University of Moratuwa Sri Lanka June 2017 i DECLARATION OF THE CANDIDATES AND SUPERVISORS Figure 412: Powder Factor vs Aggregate Impact Value (Cubic Model) 53 Figure 413: Powder Factor vs Rock Mass Rating value

• ## Blasting mechanics: Material properties and powder

Today, we still hold the same belief that powder factor is a useful tool for economic analysis but is a poor tool for the design of blasts because powder factor

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• ## Optimization of Blasting Parameters in opencast Mines

Powder factor (desired), iii Cost of explosive, iv Mining industry is the backbone for the development of any nation In mining the basic aim is to aggregate cost of drilling and blasting is taken together, this may go as high as 30% of direct cost of production Therefore to cut down the cost of production optimal fragmentation from

• ## (PDF) Determination of Powder Factor for an Optimize

PDF On Sep 16, 2007, Hossein Nezamabadipour and others published Determination of Powder Factor for an Optimize d Blast Pattern Design Using Artificial

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• ## Study of the Powder Factor in Surface Bench Blasting

In this light, the present study was conducted in opencast phosphate mines to see the effect of Schmidt hammer rebound number or transformed compressive strength of rocks on the powder factor The correlation was found sufficiently reliable to enable the determination of an optimum powder factor for surface bench blast in different rock types

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• ## Guidance on Emission Factors for the Mining Industry

22 General Mining Material Processes Flow Diagram 5 23 Table of General Mining Material Processes Emission Factors 6 24 AP42 Chapter 11192 Emission Factor Decision Tree 22 25 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) 25

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• ## POWDER METALLURGY影响因子(IF)中科院分区SCI

《POWDER METALL》发布于爱科学网，并永久归类相关SCI期刊导航类别中，本站只是硬性分析 "《POWDER METALL》" 的杂志可信度。杂志真正的价值在于它是否为社会的发展带来积极促进作用。"《POWDER METALL》" 的价值还取决于各种因素

• ## A novel powder factor based bench blast design method

A NOVEL POWDER FACTOR BASED BENCH BLAST DESIGN METHOD FOR LARGE SURFACE COAL MINES by ANDREW CLIFFORD BLAIR A DISSERTATION Presented to the Graduate Faculty of the MISSOURI UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in MINING ENGINEERING 2015

• ## Selection of Powder Factor in LargeDiameter Blast Holes

The accumulated cost of shovel teeth, powder and electricity shows the effects of underblasting in the mine(fig 10) The slope of the lower envelope may indicate up to a 3 to 1 cost payback on increasing the powder factor The argument for a higher powder factor becomes even more compelling if the productivity of shovels and crushers are also

• ## (PDF) Determination of Powder Factor for an Optimize

PDF On Sep 16, 2007, Hossein Nezamabadipour and others published Determination of Powder Factor for an Optimize d Blast Pattern Design Using Artificial Neural Network (Case Study: GoleGohar

• ## Study of the Powder Factor in Surface Bench Blasting

In this light, the present study was conducted in opencast phosphate mines to see the effect of Schmidt hammer rebound number or transformed compressive strength of rocks on the powder factor The correlation was found sufficiently reliable to enable the determination of an optimum powder factor for surface bench blast in different rock types

• ## Powder Factor University of Alaska Fairbanks

Powder Factor is defined as the amount of explosive required to dislodge and fragment 1 cubic yard of rock [3] The softer (less dense) the material that is being blasted; the smaller the powder factor Blastability Index (BI) is a variable calculated

• ## ap 42 emissions factors pm aggregate mining

emission factor for conveyor mineral labhgarh ap 42 emissions factors pm aggregate mining chapter mineral products industry sand and gravel is typically mined

• ## 139 iopscience

mining cost [13] For constant conditions of bench height, powder factor, type of rock, and blast hole diameter and if the charged are fired instantaneously, there is a relationship between S/B in which the displacement and the fragmentation are optimum In mining operation, the S/B ratio has been in between 12 [14], [15] 2 Field Study and

• ## Aggregate Mining an overview Regional Aquatics

Aggregate Mining an overview The term “aggregate” refers to coarse particulate material such as crushed stone, gravel, sand, clay, and marl Aggregate is used in the construction of buildings, roads, dams, and other infrastructure as a base material or in composite

• ## Guidance on Emission Factors for the Mining Industry

22 General Mining Material Processes Flow Diagram 5 23 Table of General Mining Material Processes Emission Factors 6 24 AP42 Chapter 11192 Emission Factor Decision Tree 22 25 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) 25

• ## DESIGN OF BINS AND HOPPERS FOR THE STORAGE OF

is powder flowability The flow function of a particulate material is found by performing the shear experiments set out in point331 10 de 123 The flow factor ofthe system binmaterialiff) The flow factor (ff) of a binparticulatematerial system is the plot of the maximum

• ## Powder Factor McCallum Rock Drilling

Powder factor is expressed in many different forms Essentially it is a measurement of explosives per quantity of rock The typical variation of this that we use on a daily basis is how many pounds of explosives per cubic yard of rock

• ## Selection of Powder Factor in LargeDiameter Blast Holes

The accumulated cost of shovel teeth, powder and electricity shows the effects of underblasting in the mine(fig 10) The slope of the lower envelope may indicate up to a 3 to 1 cost payback on increasing the powder factor The argument for a higher powder factor becomes even more compelling if the productivity of shovels and crushers are also

• ## Powder Factor University of Alaska Fairbanks

Powder Factor is defined as the amount of explosive required to dislodge and fragment 1 cubic yard of rock [3] The softer (less dense) the material that is being blasted; the smaller the powder factor Blastability Index (BI) is a variable calculated

• ## ap 42 emissions factors pm aggregate mining

emission factor for conveyor mineral labhgarh ap 42 emissions factors pm aggregate mining chapter mineral products industry sand and gravel is typically mined

• ## open cast aggregate mining blasting pattern

open cast aggregate mining blasting pattern The results obtained by solid blasting in one mine in hazaribagh area cCL are given below for guidance gradient of seam in category of gassiness degree working method bord amp pillar development gallery size m wide x m high shot holes at a face m deep, wedge cut pattern total no

• ## Definition of powder factor

Definition of powder factor The quantity of explosive used per unit of rock blasted, measured in lb/yd 3 (kg/m 3 ) per ton (metric ton) of rock Click here to see list of references, authorities, sources and geographical terms as used in this glossary

• ## Aggregate Mining an overview Regional Aquatics

Aggregate Mining an overview The term “aggregate” refers to coarse particulate material such as crushed stone, gravel, sand, clay, and marl Aggregate is used in the construction of buildings, roads, dams, and other infrastructure as a base material or in composite

• ## Blasting Safety – Revisiting Site Security

• Delay systems, powder factor, and pounds per delay, • Type and amount of explosive material, and • Type and amount of stemming The Federal Office of Surface Mining (OSM) regulations [30 CFR § 81667 and 81767] help to characterize the bounds of the blast area by specifying that flyrock shall not be cast from the blasting site–

• ## Effects of Aggregate Size, Shape, and Surface Texture on

mixtures this accounts for the fact that aggregate gradation has little predictable influence and adequate stability may be developed in mixtures composed of a wide variety of particle size combinations" Gradation is an important factor in controlling the degradation of bituminous mixtures

• ## DESIGN OF BINS AND HOPPERS FOR THE STORAGE OF

is powder flowability The flow function of a particulate material is found by performing the shear experiments set out in point331 10 de 123 The flow factor ofthe system binmaterialiff) The flow factor (ff) of a binparticulatematerial system is the plot of the maximum

• ## Powder Factor McCallum Rock Drilling

Powder factor is expressed in many different forms Essentially it is a measurement of explosives per quantity of rock The typical variation of this that we use on a daily basis is how many pounds of explosives per cubic yard of rock

• ## Aggregate Mining an overview Regional Aquatics

Aggregate Mining an overview The term “aggregate” refers to coarse particulate material such as crushed stone, gravel, sand, clay, and marl Aggregate is used in the construction of buildings, roads, dams, and other infrastructure as a base material or in composite

• ## ap 42 emissions factors pm aggregate mining

emission factor for conveyor mineral labhgarh ap 42 emissions factors pm aggregate mining chapter mineral products industry sand and gravel is typically mined

• ## Estimation of the powder factor in bench blasting

The powder factor was determined locally by reference to similar bench blasting applications to the same minerals and rocks and the results were also compared with previous findings Finally, a relationship between the Bond work index and the powder factor was established by the application of statistical and mathematical methods, taking into

• ## construction raw material Aggregate Stone Dust

Stones / Minerals Mining / Cutting / Polishing of construction raw material Aggregate Stone Dust (Powder), Construction Raw Materials, Aggregate Kapchi and 28 to 34 mm metal offered by Jalaram Stone Industries, Chikhli, Gujarat

• ## The Human Factor in Mining Reclamation USGS

The Human Factor in Mining Reclamation Center, City of Denver Skyline and Aggregate Industries, photograph by Jonathan Eady Right, Detail of stone paving design, photograph by B Arbogast The Human Factor in Mining Reclamation By Belinda F Arbogast, Daniel H Knepper, Jr, and

• ## Effects of Aggregate Size, Shape, and Surface Texture on

mixtures this accounts for the fact that aggregate gradation has little predictable influence and adequate stability may be developed in mixtures composed of a wide variety of particle size combinations" Gradation is an important factor in controlling the degradation of bituminous mixtures

• ## Limestone and Crushed Rock Energy

mining Figure 92 shows the amount of coal mined in relation to the amount of waste material produced in coal mining When looking at energy requirements in mining and processing the tonnage of materials which must be handled drives energy consumption in mining operations For example, in 2000 the amount of crushed rock produced was 17

• ## Suggested Compaction Standards for Crushed Aggregate

soils and soilaggregate materials The type of test used by the Virginia Department of Highways for years has been the AASHO Standard T99 test, performed on the minus No 4 fraction only Granular base and subbase materials, however, commonly include from 35 to 70 percent plus No 4 aggregate, which necessitates making a correction to

• ## EFFECTS OF AGGREGATE TYPE, SIZE, AND CONTENT ON

There is strong evidence that aggregate type is a factor in the strength of concrete Ezeldin and Aitcin (1991) compared concretes with the same mix proportions containing four different coarse aggregate types They concluded that, in highstrength concretes, higher strength coarse aggregates typically yield higher